
Quantum Enigma Machine
Project poses fundamental questions concerning randomness and computation. Nowadays, many procedures based on simulation of random processes lie at the basis of practical applications in banking, stock market, games, in security systems etc. Main goal of project is generating totally random sequence of numbers by using quantum processes from decay of radioactive materials as Thorium. This sequence is great cryptographic key that can not be break by any intelligence agency.
Generating random numbers is not easy. People are extremely bad at generating random sequences. People behave in a mechanic and repetitive manner. Human brain aims to conceive reality within periodic sequences and patterns. The existing computing machines don't generate random sequences; the so called pseudogenerators of random numbers are periodic. This is way the project deals with quantum level randomness from decay of radioactive materials as Thorium. Quantum mechanics is believed to be fundamentally nondeterministic and it shows that randomness operates on certain level of our reality.
The significance of randomness for sociopolitical processes. Internet, after delusions concerning openness and decentralization, is being understood more in terms of control exercised by government agencies (e.g. NSA) and advertising agencies. We live in a new era, in which mathematics has become a powerful weapon. Random numbers are crucial for: encryption keys, random authentication, keyagreement schemes, generating prime numbers and so on. Breaking of the randomnumber generator means breaking the entire security system. Understanding of the use of random numbers plays a very important role in times of mass surveillance, e.g.: NSA manipulates us by installing secret "backdoor" in encryption systems, which should protect our data. It concerns cryptographic standards, which are based on mathematical objects called "elliptic curves". It turns out, that there are certain elliptic curves, which appear to be random, but are in fact easy to decipher. It enables the agency to break into our emails and personal data. The governments and intelligence agencies exploit our ignorance, and manipulate us more when we are less aware of mathematics. Cryptography is the ultimate form of nonviolent direct action! There are math problems that you can create that even the strongest state cannot break. Cryptography allows to create regions free from the coercive force of the outer state. Free from mass interception. Free from state control. Be Random. Don't Let Politicians and Economists Hack Your Activity!
German Enigma
Old enigma machines are devices that perform cryptography using pseudorandom numbers. The original german enigma machine code was broken by detecting hidden patterns in these pseudorandom numbers. This work proposes a model for a quantum radioactive enigma machine and shows that the phenomenon of quantum data locking makes such quantum
enigma machines provably secure even in the presence of noise and loss.
The enigma machine used for cryptography during the second world war was a device which, given a short keyword, produced a pseudorandom output [13] which could be decoded by a second machine using the same keyword. The original enigma machine
consisted of a series of rotors through which electrical current could pass in a way that depended on the relative orientation of the rotors. The path taken by the current connected an input symbol to an output system. After each key press the rotors went through
a stepping motion that changed the functional relationship betweein input and output for the next key press. A sender and receiver who prepared their machines using the same initial setting, determined by the keyword, could then exchange encrypted messages. While the enigma machine did a pretty good job of scrambling the input, the outputs deviated sufficiently from pseudorandom sequences that the enigma code could be broken.
Quantum random key/based on radiation
The project used an old Geiger counter and point it at a source of radiation  like e.g. Thorium. The output of the Geiger counter is feed to an interface that will connect to the serial port on a Mac and watch the interval between "clicks". If the most recent interval is greater than the previous interval I'll count that as a 1, if less I will count it as a 0, and if equal, I'll just drop the current interval.
Random bits key:
101100110010011111101101101000000100100011010100010011010010110011101100111000
110011010101101010101100111010110000101001111101110111111101010111001101100011
101001001011010101110111100011100101100111011110101101101001101011111110100111
110011000100001110001010101101100101110110110101110110100001001010100101000001
000100100010001011101110100110101000001101011100011000110100100100101101011011
111000011110000110010000000011100101001001111001000111010000100010001101001101
110010010111011001101110100110101111001010101010110110011111111101011101110011
110111100010101000100001111100110101100000010000010011000101101110111000101011
000011001100010010101111001110000110001111000100011011111101000101011000110111
001011010100110110001100011100000101110001101001100000100010101011101001000100
011000010110111001101000111000011001111100101111011000110001010000101100000010
101010111111010011100111100010000010000010110110011101010110011000111101011100
010111001001100100110111100010111000001110001011010010011001110111011110101101
101110011100001101000010011111010010100001011111101011111100000101100000011011
001001010011100110111110011000110100010111100000100110101010001110101001100000
111011001111000001001111001010110110011011000001011011101111000100101011111001
111001010110111000010001100001110011111110010110101101111011110000001111111101
110111100011010111100101010100101100101110111111101100001110111100100101011001
101111010000110011011000010101001001000101011000001010011011010100100110111011
101111011111001001101111110000000110001000101001110100110101010110000001010001
100001011010111101011100001101110001011011101011101001100001111100010101101011
111011001010101110110110100100101001001111001100000100111100011001100111010111
110100011111010111110101101111001010011000111111100111011101111011101100000100
110011100110111000111110000010100110001001110001000101011011010010000010111101
000001011110011001100111011101101001010000010001000001100011010011110110100010
011110111001001000011000100111000000010101100000111110111101011001001111101110
011110100001110100010011001101110000001001010000100001000001011111010110110100
111001111000001000110011011011000110010001011111001000001011101011100100111101
100100101000110011011001010101011010001111100111101110011000111100111000111001
101001100100111110000010111001000000100100101110101110000100111111000100110011
110111110100111110111101010010000001101011001010101110100110010010000000101010
110110101111010111001010011000001110111110100100101100011101101011100001101100
000011100001101010100000101111000111100000000001101111001110101001100000110110
110000111001000011001100011111011000011011010000010111011011110010110110101011
111000101111101111100011011001000000111001010010001101000001010101001010110111
Software for using quantum key
Linux:
TrueCrypt
gpg+Thunderbird
+Enigmail
LUKS+dmcrypt
ownCloud via Client
MacOs X:
TrueCrypt
gpgtools+Thunderbird+Enigmail
gpgtools+Mail.app
ownCloud via client
RANDOMNESS
The project examines different types of Randomness in:
• Communication Theory and Coding Theory(Shannon),
• Algorithmic Information Theory (Kolmogorov, Solomonoff, Chaitin),
• Quantum Information Theory
In communication theory, randomness in a signal is referred to as noise and is identified with the concept of meaninglessness.
Mathematically, precisely defined randomness remains connected with the concept of uncomputability. There exist strong interactions between computability and randomness. Making use of computability allows for a better understanding of Randomness and vice versa.
Algorithmic information theory works with the concept of randomness through examining sequences of bits. Unpredictability may be connected with the idea of compressibility: for finite sequences randomness means incompressibility. The fact that incompressibility is a condition necessary for randomness is seemingly clear, but it is not a sufficient condition.
Unpredictability, incompressibility and other key features of randomness turned out to be strongly connected: a finite object may be considered random, when it can be proved that it is a part of a bigger object.
Randomness has been connected with a fundamental notion, that is uncomputability. A notion stemming from mathematical logic and theory of recursion, where the greatest breakthrough has been made by Kurt Goedel and Alan Turing, who have shown the limits of computation.
Applications
Nowadays, many procedures based on simulation of random processes lie at the basis of practical applications in banking, stock market, games, in enciphering passwords etc. In economy, random walk is often used concerning shifts in prices and it plays an important role in conceptualization of financial markets. In biology, randomness in disguise of mutation is a driving force of natural selection and a principal characteristic of the theory of evolution.
In the domain of art, randomness has always played an important role, yet it became a subject of research not until the XX century: eg.: concept of the READY MADE formulated by Marcel Duchamp, its elaboration in Conceptual Art through the employment of metalanguage tools, and the use of selfreference has opened art for abstract problems. Simultaneously, similar phenomena have been occurring in music, eg.: new formal ways of composing music, from Arnold Schonberg, through the use of different probability distributions by Iannis Xenakis (GENDY, UPIC etc), to noise music.
Quantum Enigma at Harvestworks Arts Center New York  Robert B. Lisek from Robert B. Lisek on Vimeo.
Cryptography and FREE SOCIETY
The significance of randomness for sociopolitical processes. Internet, after delusions concerning openness and decentralization, is being understood more in terms of control exercised by government agencies (e.g. NSA) and advertising agencies. We live in a new era, in which mathematics has become a powerful weapon. Random numbers are crucial for cryptography: for encryption keys, random authentication, keyagreement schemes, generating prime numbers and so on. Breaking of the randomnumber generator means breaking the entire security system. Understanding of the use of random numbers plays a very important role in times of mass surveillance, e.g.: NSA manipulates us by installing secret "backdoor" in encryption systems, which should protect our data. It concerns cryptographic standards, which are based on mathematical objects called "elliptic curves". It turns out, that there are certain elliptic curves, which appear to be random, but are in fact easy to decipher. It enables the agency to break into our emails and personal data. The governments and intelligence agencies exploit our ignorance, and manipulate us more when we are less aware of mathematics.
Cryptography is the ultimate form of nonviolent direct action! There are math problems that you can create that even the strongest state cannot break. Cryptography allows to create regions free from the coercive force of the outer state. Free from mass interception. Free from state control.
Be Random. Don't Let Politicians and Economists Hack Your Brain and Activity!
RANDOM BLAST  Robert B. Lisek from Robert B. Lisek on Vimeo.
Future research
The most well known and developed application of quantum cryptography is quantum key distribution (QKD). QKD describes the process of using quantum communication to establish a shared key between two parties (usually called Alice and Bob) without a third party (Eve) learning anything about that key, even if Eve can eavesdrop on all communication between Alice and Bob. This is achieved by Alice encoding the bits of the key as quantum data and sending them to Bob; if Eve tries to learn these bits, the messages will be disturbed and Alice and Bob will notice. The key is then typically used for encrypted communication.
The security of QKD can be proven mathematically without imposing any restrictions on the abilities of an eavesdropper, something not possible with classical key distribution. This is usually described as "unconditional security", although there are some minimal assumptions required including that the laws of quantum mechanics apply and that Alice and Bob are able to authenticate each other, i.e. Eve should not be able to impersonate Alice or Bob as otherwise a maninthemiddle attack would be possible.
QKD is the only example of commercially available quantum cryptography.
Author
development: Robert B. Lisek
coding: Robert B. Lisek
http://www.lisek.art.pl
contact: lisek at fundamental dot art dot pl 
